The gut microbiota, mainly composed of bacteria, plays a key role in the pathophysiology of gut diseases and is the subject of regular publications. On the other hand, there is very little data on the fungal microbiota. Recent studies establish that the “mycobiome” could have an importance and not least on the immune and inflammatory mechanisms involved in these diseases.
A two-part study performed on patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and on rats with visceral hypersensitivity shows the link between fungal dysbiosis and visceral hypersensitivity, which is a major characteristics of IBS.1
The study shows that the mycobiota of healthy volunteers differs from the one of IBS patients, and that among IBS patients, those with visceral hypersensitivity display a specific fungal signature.
In the animal model, when comparing rat mycobiota, those that separated early from their mothers to induce stress predisposing to IBS also show fungal dysbiosis. Administration of a fungicide to rats with visceral hypersensitivity allow to bring down this hypersensitivity to a normal threshold.
1. Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis Is Associated With Visceral Hypersensitivity in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Rats – Gastroenterology 2017;153:1026–1039